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Gamification refers to the integration of game-like elements and mechanics into non-game activities or processes to enhance engagement, motivation, and participation. Typical mechanics of gamification include rules, goals, points, feedback, badges, leveling up, competition, etc. Gamification can be strategically applied to impact the behaviour of both employees and customers.

In this stream of research, I have investigated how building probabilistic rewards into customer loyalty reward programs and employee incentive reward schemes can increase motivation, engagement, and output.


  • Camilleri, A. R., Jin, L., & Zhang, Y. (2024). Probability-based loyalty reward programs increase customer engagement. Working paper.
  • Camilleri, A. R. & Neelim, A. (March, 2024). How gamification can boost employee engagement. [PDF]
  • Camilleri, A. R., Dankova, K., Ortiz Gomez, J. M., & Neelim, A. (2023). Increasing worker motivation using a reward scheme with probabilistic elements. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes177, 104256. DOI: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2023.104256 [Preregistration and data] [PDF]